+ General Considerations

  • Rare and malignant tumors are more common
  • LSA is the most common pharyngeal tumor in cats with ADC and SCC also reported
  • LSA may present as a diffuse thickening of pharyngeal mucosa or localized mass
  • Pharyngeal tumors in dogs include extramedullary plasma cell tumor, OSA, CSA, FSA, MCT, undifferentiated carcinoma, ADC, and SCC
  • Benign pharyngeal tumors (i.e., rhabdomyoma, angioleiomyoma, and oncocytoma) have also been described in dogs
  • Rhabdomyoma has a predilection for young male dogs and are minimally invasive with no reported metastasis

+ Clinical Features

  • Clinical signs: voice change, respiratory noise or distress with obstruction, exercise intolerance, dysphagia, and pain
  • Diagnosis: ultrasound, radiology, and biopsy under direct visualization
  • DDx: inflammatory polyps and laryngeal disease

+ Treatment

  • Benign tumors and cysts can be removed while preserving function
  • Radical procedures required for malignant tumors such as permanent tracheostomy and complete laryngectomy
  • Temporary tracheostomy may be required to permit resection
  • Other options: radiation therapy and chemotherapy

+ Prognosis

  • Rhabdomyoma: survival time usually > 1 year and majority are considered cured
  • Malignant laryngeal tumors are rare tumors which are not frequently treated hence data not available