+ General Considerations

  • Uterine tumors are rare and account for 0.3%-0.4% of all canine tumors
  • Leiomyoma accounts for 85%-90% and leiomyosarcoma accounts for 10% of uterine tumors in dogs
  • Leiomyomas are non-invasive, non-metastatic and slow-growing
  • Gross differentiation of leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma is difficult
  • Congenital multiple uterine leiomyoma reported in GSD with renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis
  • Others uterine tumors include adenoma, ADC, fibroma, FSA, and lipoma


+ Clinical Signs

  • Middle-aged to older animals
  • No breed predilections
  • Leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma are usually incidental findings during ovariohysterectomy
  • Abdominal enlargement with palpable abdominal mass
  • Hydrometra or mucometra if lumen obstructed
  • Dysuria, hematuria, and vaginal discharge can occur with pyometra

+ Diagnosis

  • Abdominal palpation
  • Survey radiographs and ultrasonography to confirm origin of mass
  • Histopathology

+ Treatment

  • Ovariohysterectomy
  • Role and effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is unknown

+ Prognosis

  • Surgical excision is curative for leiomyoma and other benign lesions
  • Prognosis is good for leiomyosarcoma and other malignant tumors if surgical excision is complete and there is no evidence of metastatic disease