• CSA is a malignant cartilage-producing neoplasm arising de novo within bone
  • CSA is the 2nd most common primary bone tumor (5%-10%), but uncommon in the appendicular skeleton
  • CSA should be differentiated from chondroblastic OSA
  • Etiology is unknown but can arise at multiple cartilaginous exostoses sites or previous bone lesion
  • Median age 8.7 years
  • Breed predisposition: Golden Retriever
  • 61%-91% CSA occur in the axial skeleton (i.e., nasal cavity [26%-36%], ribs, pelvis, vertebrae, and skull)
  • Other CSA sites include the appendicular skeleton (<20% data-preserve-html-node="true" to 26%), digits, os penis, and extraskeletal sites (i.e., mammary gland, heart valves, aorta, larynx, trachea, lung, and omentum)
  • CSA is slow to metastasize

  • Malignant tracheal tumors in dogs include OSA, CSA, MCT, ADC, LSA, and SCC
  • Benign tracheal tumors in dogs include chondroma, osteochondroma, ecchondroma-osteochondromal dysplasia, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and leiomyoma
  • Neoplasia of the thyroid gland, esophagus, lung, or aortic chemoreceptor can invade the trachea
  • Non-neoplastic tracheal masses include polyp, eosinophilic granuloma, nodular amyloidosis, tissue reaction to Filaroides osleri, chondromatous hamartoma, papillomatosis, and hyperplastic tracheitis
  • Bimodal age distribution with osteochondroma and ecchondroma-osteochondromal dysplasia in dogs < 2 years and other tumor types in dogs > 6 years
  • Osteochondroma and ecchondroma-osteochondromal dysplasia are benign osseocartilaginous tumors which grow in synchrony with the musculoskeletal system and should stop growing at skeletal maturity


+ Clinical Signs

  • Paroxysmal intermittent coughing of several weeks duration
  • Progressive worsening of dyspnea, stridor, and exercise intolerance
  • Pccasional retching produces hemorrhagic discharge
  • Respiratory signs usually evident when > 50% diameter of airway obstructed
  • Large masses may be palpable especially in the dog

+ Imaging

  • Survey ± contrast bronchography with survey radiographs usually sufficient due to size of lesions at diagnosis
  • Other radiographic signs include pulmonary over-expansion, flattening of the diaphragm, and prominent pulmonary vasculature secondary to increased air content in the lower airways
  • Tracheoscopy provides positive diagnosis with samples collected for brush cytology and histopathology
  • CT or MRI used in humans

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+ Surgical Resection

  • Resection and anastomosis
  • ± tracheal wall reconstruction or stenting

+ Other Treatment Options

  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Endoscopic removal
  • Photodynamic therapy

+ Prognosis

  • Tumor location is prognostic with CSA in the skull, nasal turbinates, and appendicular skeleton having a better prognosis than rib CSA
  • MST 210-580 days for dogs with nasal CSA and metastasis is very rare
  • MST 1,080 days for dogs with rib CSA
  • MST 201-540 days for dogs with appendicular CSA treated with limb amputation ± chemotherapy
  • 12-month survival time 17% and 24-month survival time 13%
  • Histologic grade: I, II, and III
  • Histologic grade is an important prognostic indicator for CSA of the same site

  • Benign tracheal neoplasms have a good prognosis following complete resection
  • Short-term prognosis is good for dogs with tracheal tumors, but long-term outcome has not been assessed:
  • Survival times for osteochondroma > 6-8 months
  • Survival times for ecchondroma-osteochondromal dysplasia > 5-12 months
  • Survival times for leiomyoma > 6-7 months
  • Survival times for extramedullary plasmacytoma > 3 months
  • Survival times for CSA > 9-12 months