Veterinary Society of
Surgical Oncology


General Considerations

  • uterine tumors are rare and account for 0.3%-0.4% of all canine tumors
  • leiomyoma accounts for 85%-90% and leiomyosarcoma accounts for 10% of uterine tumors in dogs
  • leiomyomas are non-invasive, non-metastatic and slow-growing
  • gross differentiation of leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma is difficult
  • congenital multiple uterine leiomyoma reported in GSD with renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis
  • others uterine tumors include adenoma, ADC, fibroma, FSA, and lipoma


Clinical Features

  • middle-aged to older animals
  • no breed predilections
  • leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma are usually incidental findings during ovariohysterectomy
  • abdominal enlargement with palpable abdominal mass
  • hydrometra or mucometra if lumen obstructed
  • dysuria, hematuria, and vaginal discharge can occur with pyometra


  • abdominal palpation
  • survey radiographs and ultrasonography to confirm origin of mass
  • histopathology


  • ovariohysterectomy
  • role and effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is unknown


  • surgical excision is curative for leiomyoma and other benign lesions
  • prognosis is good for leiomyosarcoma and other malignant tumors if surgical excision is complete and there is no evidence of metastatic disease
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