Veterinary Society of
Surgical Oncology

General Considerations

  • sebaceous gland tumors are subdivided into adenomatous hyperplasia, epithelioma, adenoma, or ADC according to the level of cellular maturation
  • modified sebaceous glands include eyelid meibomian gland and perianal gland
  • sebaceous gland tumors are rare in cats (2.3%-4.4%), but common in dogs (6.8%-7.9%)

Adenomatous Hyperplasia

  • sebaceous hyperplasia can progress to sebaceous adenoma or ADC and may be a precursor to their development
  • breed predisposition: Beagle, Cocker Spaniel, Poodle, and Miniature Schnauzer
  • sex predisposition: males in cats and dogs
  • androgen influence is suspected in pathophysiology and hyperadrenocorticism should be assessed in female dogs and dogs with recurrent adenomatous hyperplasia of the sweat glands
  • gross appearance: solitary (± multiple) and grossly indistinguishable from adenoma
  • sites: head in cats and limbs, trunk, and eyelids in dogs
  • treatment: surgery
  • prognosis: good with local tumor recurrence rare (1.1%) but de novo tumor development in up to 10%

Sebaceous Epithelioma

  • breed predisposition: Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, and Irish Setter
  • solitary form occurs primarily on the head and particularly the eyelids
  • generalized form has been reported
  • treatment: surgery
  • prognosis: good with local tumor recurrence rate 6%

Sebaceous Gland Adenoma

  • breed predisposition: Cocker Spaniel, Springer Spaniel, Boston Terrier, and Wire-Haired Terrier
  • gross appearance and biologic behaviour similar to adenomatous hyperplasia
  • sites: head
  • treatment: surgery

Sebaceous Gland Adenocarcinoma

  • rapid growth rate and ulceration
  • site: perianal
  • gross appearance: solitary, poorly circumscribed, ulcerated, and invasive
  • local tumor recurrence and metastasis risk varies from low to 70%-90%


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