Veterinary Society of
Surgical Oncology

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

General Considerations

  • testicular tumors are common and account for 4%-7% of all tumors in male dogs
  • testicular tumors broadly classified into 2 groups based on histology:
  • group I: germ cell tumors such as seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, and teratoma
  • group II: Sertoli cell tumor, interstitial cell tumor, and mixed testicular tumors
  • mixed testicular tumors may be classified separately
  • mixed germ cell-stromal tumors have a dual population of germ and Sertoli cells and account for 7% of canine testicular tumors
  • breed predisposition: Siberian Husky, Norwegian Elkhound, Fox Terrier, Afghan Hound, and Shetland Sheepdog
  • Dachshund, Rottweiler, Shih Tzu, Yorkshire Terrier, Toy Poodle, Miniature Schnauzer, and mixed breed dogs have a significantly decreased risk of developing testicular tumors
  • From: Withrow SJ & MacEwen EG (eds): Small Animal Clinical Oncology (3rd ed).

  • 50% of dogs over 10 years have multiple tumors of different histologic types
  • testicular tumors are uncommon in dogs < 6 years
  • Sertoli cell tumor and seminoma are more common with cryptorchid testicles
  • Seminoma

  • seminomas arise from germinal epithelium and are usually solitary masses
  • seminomas are bilateral in 18% dogs
  • 34% of seminomas are found in cryptorchid testicles
  • 16-times risk of developing seminoma in the cryptorchid testicle compared to descended testicle in dogs with unilateral cryptorchidism
  • seminoma in descended testicle found in younger dogs and associated with contralateral cryptorchid testicle
  • seminomas are associated with prostatic disease and enlargement, circumanal gland hyperplasia, and perianal tumors ± perineal hernia
  • < 10% metastatic rate
  • metastatic sites including sublumbar lymph node (common), lungs, liver, spleen, adrenal glands, pancreas, CNS, eyes, and skin
  • AgNOR counts are higher in dogs with metastatic seminoma compared to non-metastatic seminoma
  • Other Testicular Tumors

  • other tumors include hemangioma, granulosa cell tumor, sarcoma, embryonal carcinoma, gonadoblastoma, and LSA
  • testicular teratoma is very rare in dogs
  • metastatic testicular tumors from GI ADC have been reported in 3 dogs
  • CLINICAL FEATURES

    Clinical Signs

  • incidental finding at surgery or necropsy
  • scrotal or inguinal mass or enlargement
  • hypertrophic osteopathy reported in 1 dog with metastatic Sertoli cell tumor to lungs and kidney
  • feminization is rare in dogs with seminomas
  • Diagnosis

  • scrotal palpation
  • rectal examination, lateral abdominal radiograph, abdominal ultrasonography, or direct examination during exploratory celiotomy to assess ± biopsy the sublumbar lymph nodes
  • infertility associated with spermatozoal abnormalities such as lesions in mid-piece region, poor spermatozoal motility, and low total spermatozoal output
  • aspiration or biopsy are invasive, compromise testicular-blood barrier and may predispose to infertility and spermatic granuloma formation
  • ± thoracic radiographs
  • histopathology following castration
  • Treatment

  • castration with resection of a large amount of the spermatic cord
  • 137cesium external beam radiation therapy has been used in 4 dogs with metastatic seminoma with CR in 3 dogs and no evidence of recurrence
  • platinum-based chemotherapy protocols are recommended in humans and dogs with metastatic seminoma
  • bleomycin used successfully in 1 dog with cutaneous metastasis with no recurrence by 12 months
  • vincristine and cyclophosphamide were not effective in 1 dog with cutaneous metastasis
  • Prognosis

  • castration is curative if no bone marrow hypoplasia, myelosuppression, or metastatic disease
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