Veterinary Society of
Surgical Oncology

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

CLINICAL FEATURES

Biologic Behaviour

  • site: distal rectum
  • 80% are single lesions and 20% are multiple
  • 0%-41% local tumor recurrence rate after surgical resection
  • 18% rectal polyps undergo malignant transformation
  • tenesmus, hematochezia, dyschezia, rectal bleeding unassociated with defecation, and polyp prolapse
  • other signs can include vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss

Physical Examination

  • abdominal mass is frequently palpable via either abdomen and rectal palpation
  • other findings include dehydration and abdominal pain

Laboratory Tests

  • anemia and leukocytosis reported but occur less commonly than small intestinal tumors
  • paraneoplastic leukocytosis reported with adenomatous rectal polyp

Endoscopy

  • endoscopy is recommended prior to definitive treatment
  • biopsy samples should be interpreted histologically as cytologic misdiagnosis is common with intestinal ADC being misdiagnosed as either septic inflammation or LSA
  • biopsy samples are often small and superficial resulting in false-negative diagnosis if lesion is either submucosal or associated with surface ulceration and necrosis

TREATMENT

Surgery

Surgical Techniques

  • surgical approaches: rectal eversion
  • transanal endoscopic resection of benign rectal tumors has been described in 6 dogs

Cryosurgery

  • cryosurgery of pedunculated stalk can be considered with rectal polyps

Chemotherapy

  • piroxicam (suppository or oral) for rectal tubulopapillary polyps with significant PR or CR in 88% (7/8)

Prognosis

  • 0%-41% local tumor recurrence rate after surgical resection or cryosurgery
  • 18% rectal polyps undergo malignant transformation
  • survival time > 1 year with few deaths related to polyp
  • survival time for polyps diagnosed as carcinoma in situ 5-24 months

RECTAL POLYP

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